The best method for processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) in small towns and villages is vermi-
. It is also recommended by the ministry of urban development, government of India as a mode
of processing MSW.

Vermi-composting is easy to practise, is ecologically safe and economically sound.

Vermi-compost is the degraded organic matter (cast or excreta) by worm activity, and the process of
converting organic fraction of the MSW into vermi-compost through the action of epigeic earthworms’
species is called vermi-composting.

To address this problem of waste management and disposal in small towns
E-TECH has introduced a low
cost solution for converting the MSW into Vermi-Compost. The conversion of solid waste into vermi-compost
provides several advantages to the environment, local community and the municipal authority. These
advantages are:

1.        Low cost solution for processing & disposal of MSW in accordance with the MSW Rules 2000.

2.        Production of vermi-compost.  Vermi-Compost improves the soil fertility, resulting in better agricultural
yield in the region.

3.        Saves the land which would otherwise be wasted in dumping the MSW and improves the local

4.        Helps the local body meet its obligation under the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling)
Rules 2000.


There is a growing realisation that vermi-composting provides the nutrients and growth enhancing hormones
necessary for plant growth. The fruits, flowers and vegetables and other plant products grown using vermi-
compost are reported to have better keeping quality. A growing number of individuals and institutions are
taking interest in the production of compost utilising earthworm activity. As the cost of production of this
compost works out to about Rs.1.5 per kg, it is quite profitable to sell the compost even at Rs.2.50 per kg.
Other organic manures like neem cake, groundnut cake, etc., are sold around this price.
The process of composting MSW using earthworms comprise spreading the wastes and cow dung in layers
as 1.5 m wide and 0.9 m high beds of required length. Earthworms are introduced in between the layers @ 1
Kg worms per m3 of bed volume. The beds are maintained at about 40 - 50% moisture content and a
temperature of 20 - 30 deg C by sprinkling water over the beds. The earthworms being voracious eaters
consume the biodegradable matter and give out a part of the matter as excreta or vermi-castings. The vermi-
casting containing nutrients is rich manure for the plants.
When the commercial scale production is aimed at in addition to the cost of production, considerable
amount has to be invested initially on capital items. The capital cost may work out to about Rs. 10 Lakh for a
1.5 tonne per day facility. The high capital cost is due to the fact that large units require considerable
expenditure on infrastructure, equipment and transport. However, the activity produces a valuable product
which will enhance the productivity of the soil. Following are the items required to be considered while
setting up a unit for production of vermi-compost.


There are about 2500 varieties of worms found world wide out of which about 500 species of earth worms in
India with various food and burrowing habits, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatius are
some of the species for rearing to convert organic wastes into manure. The worms feed on any
biodegradable matter ranging from coir waste to kitchen garbage and vermi-composting units are ideally
suited to locations / units with generation of considerable quantities of organic wastes. One earthworm
reaching reproductive age of about six weeks lays one egg capsule (containing 7 embryos) every 7 - 10
days. Three to seven worms emerge out of each capsule. Thus, the multiplication of worms under optimum
growth conditions is very fast. The worms live for about 2 years. Fully grown worms could be separated and
dried in a oven to make 'worm meal' which is a rich source of protein (70%) for use in animal feed.


Suburbs of cities and villages around urban centres can be ideal locations for practice of vermi-composting
on a large scale, from the view point of availability of raw material and marketing of the produce. As use of
the compost is said to have ameliorative effect on product from fruit, flower and vegetable crops, vermi-
composting units may be located in areas with concentration of fruit and vegetable growers and flori culture


As the wastes are pulverised as they pass through the worm, the surface area of the material increases
which in turn helps as base for nutrients. Vermi-compost, apart from supplying nutrients and growth
enhancing hormones to plants, improves the soil structure leading to increase in water and nutrient holding
capacities of soil. Chemical fertilizer in moderate doses can go along with vermin-composting.

E-TECH Complete Package

Preparation of Waste Management Plan for approval from M.P.P.C.B

Preparation of project report for setting up vermi-compost plant

Erection of low cost infrastructure.

Supply of Equipment, Technology and Worms.

Demonstration of Vermi-compost production and Training of Manpower.